Cinematography

Cinematography (from Greek: , kinema "movements" and ?, graphein "to record") is the art or science of motion picture photography.[1] It is the art or technique of movie photography, including both the shooting and development of the film.[2] It can involve the use of film or digital imagery, usually with a movie camera. It is closely related to the art of still photography. Many additional technical difficulties and creative possibilities arise when the camera and elements of the scene may be in motion. The cinematographer could also be referred to as the film director's main visual collaborator.[3] Cinematography is an art form of filmmaking. Although the exposing of images on light-sensitive elements dates back to the early 19th century,[4] motion pictures demanded a new form of photography and new aesthetic techniques. On June 19, 1872, Eadweard Muybridge successfully photographed a horse named "Sallie Gardner" in fast motion. The recording used a series of 24 stereoscopic cameras. The cameras were arranged along a track parallel to the horse's, and each camera shutter was controlled by a trip wire which was triggered by the horse's hooves. They were 21 inches apart to cover the 20 feet taken by the horse stride, taking pictures at one thousandth of a second.[5] In 1882, Etienne-Jules Marey invented a chronophotographic gun, which was capable of taking 12 consecutive frames a second, recording all the frames on the same picture. The second experimental film, Roundhay Garden Scene, filmed by Louis Le Prince on October 14, 1888 in Roundhay, Leeds, England, is now known as the earliest surviving motion picture. The first to design a fully successful apparatus was W. K. L. Dickson, working under the direction of Thomas Alva Edison. His fully developed camera, called the Kinetograph, was patented in 1891 and took a series of instantaneous photographs on standard Eastman Kodak photographic emulsion coated on to a transparent celluloid strip 35 mm wide. The results of this work were first shown in public in 1893, using the viewing apparatus also designed by Dickson, and called the Kinetoscope. This was contained within a large box, and only permitted the images to be viewed by one person at a time looking into it through a peephole. It was not a commercial success in this form, and left the way free for Charles Francis Jenkins and his projector, the Phantoscope, with the first showing before an audience in June 1894. Louis and Auguste Lumiere perfected the Cinematographe, an apparatus that took, printed, and projected film. They gave their first show of projected pictures to an audience in Paris in December 1895. Filmmaking (often referred to in an academic context as film production) is the process of making a film. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through scriptwriting, casting, shooting, editing, and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic, social, and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques. Typically, it involves a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete.